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Mặt cắt là gì? Thiết kế bản vẽ mặt cắt nhà đơn giản, hiện đại

Architects are those who best understand the concepts of what a plan is, a facade, house cross section what. But you in the role of a homeowner who hires a construction designer, interior designer, you should also know those concepts, as well as understand drawings to know how architects build a house. Let’s learn the basics of house cross section in the article below.

Learn about House Sections
Learn about House Sections

What is a house cross section?

House cross section is a drawing that shows the part seen after cutting a vertical space, similar to cutting a cake and seeing its composition and layers. The cross-sectional drawing will show the interior space of the house. The displayed parameters include the height of the house, the height of the floors, the height of the door holes, the roof floor, the stairs… Therefore, people often draw the section through special positions such as cutting. Through the openings of the stairs, the rooms have noticeable texture or decoration.

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What is a façade?

The façade is an orthogonal projection showing the exterior shape of the building. The section shows the shape, the balance ratio between the general size and the size of each part of the house.

Facade drawing The main (front face of the house) needs to be depicted very carefully, sometimes at a larger scale than the facades in other directions. Because this is the direction people will look at the most of your house.

Because the house has many directions, so facade drawing There are also different names showing different views such as: North facade, East facade; The facade of Au Co street…

What is a standing face?
What is a standing face?

What is ground?

The floor plan is a cross-section of the house. The main plan is a slice of a conventional plane parallel to the ground that cuts through the house. About 1-1.5m higher than the floor or floor of the house. If the house has many floors, or many different floors will have to have separate premises. If the floors have the same structure, only a typical floor plan is enough.

Construction drawing concept

Construction drawings are combinations of plans, sides, elevations and sections of objects in your residential construction. The purpose of the drawing is to provide an image for the mason to begin construction, in order to avoid unnecessary errors or confusion.

Why should there be construction drawings?

Before building a house, you must have an idea for the project, you cannot sketch out ideas on paper because it will lack logic and disjoint. Because of this, before embarking on owning a housing project, you must have a design drawing by:

Generality: You will have an overview of the house through the drawing, if you do not like something, you can ask the architect to change it immediately. Repairing on drawings is completely free, you will avoid wasting money unreasonably when you need to change the structure of the house.

Estimated volume of materials: Every project requires a clear quantity and volume of materials. Based on the house design drawings, you can estimate and prepare the necessary items, ensuring the construction goes smoothly and at the right stage.

Aesthetics: Through the drawing of the house, the homeowner can imagine his house to a certain extent, whether it fully meets the aesthetic and functional use or not. From there, homeowners can contribute ideas to make the house the most perfect.

Rules and symbols commonly found in design drawings

Regulations on drawing frames and name frames in design drawings

In construction drawings, the drawing board frame is a rectangle used to limit the amount of paper and notices on it. The outer frame is a solid solid line, from the edge of the paper 10mm after the time of trimming for A0 and A1 sizes, or 5mm for A2, A3 and A4 paper sizes.

The technical drawing name frame can be placed vertically or horizontally depending on the layout of the designer. Most of the title frames are placed on the bottom and right corners of the drawing. In which, the name frame of each drawing must be placed in such a way that the letters on the name frame have accents pointing upwards or towards the left for the drawing to facilitate finding the drawing and keeping the drawing from being corrupted. lost.

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The content in the name frame includes the following notices:

Numerical order Content to write
first The notes section includes: Submission time, amendment content and submission date.
2 Investor’s name and address, title if any
3 Project name and location of the project
4 The name of construction
5 Name of the design support unit, address, title, signature, full name, company seal
6 Performance category: Architecture, structure or electricity and water
7 Drawing name
8 Some contracts
9 Stage implementation
ten Year completed
11 Drawing scale
twelfth Drawing symbols

Ratio in reading design drawings

The scale of the drawing is the ratio between the size measured on the figure and the corresponding size measured on the actual object. Depending on the drawing size, size and complexity of the object to be represented, choose one of the following ratios: 1:5, 1:10, 1:50, 1:100, 1:200, 1: 500, 1:1000 or 1:2000. So how does this ratio correspond to the parameters in the design.

Scale 1:50,000 to 1:2000 is a small scale drawing scale, very much scaled down compared to reality. This scale often applies to large sizes such as map drawings, urban maps, regions or even small towns. This type of scale is also quite used in urban and regional plans, such as master plans or aerial photometric surveys.

Scale 1:1000 to 1:500 This is often seen when an overview of a building is needed and its position in a city network such as a neighborhood. The characteristic of this ratio is that it overwhelms the infrastructure and other components. This ratio is useful for surveys of building height as well as land use.

Scale 1:250 to 1:200 often gathered for plans, sections and elevations in large buildings. It is even possible to consider spatial and compositional components.

Scale from 1:150 to 1:100 can also be used for first approach solutions of small works and projects. In the case of larger buildings, architects will envisage more detailed drawings and models, including more defined structural and layout elements.

Scale 1:75 to 1:25 with texture, layout, and relationships between floors, or also zoom in on rooms for more detail on specific components, such as plumbing, electrical or structural.

Scale 1:20 and 1:10 represents the furniture, shows the operation of the components as well as the structure, shows the details of the drawing.

Scale 1:5 to 1:1 requires the communication of technical details with greater precision.

Depending on the scale of the project as well as the actual proposal when designing to choose the appropriate ratio. The most commonly used ratio is 1:100 for various interior design profiles.

Common symbols in construction drawings

Regulations on drawing lines in the design

Regulations on Drawings in Design
Regulations on Drawings in Design

In construction drawings, there will be regulations on drawing lines, based on which architects as well as construction people can understand detailed information related to drawings.

If there are many overlapping lines in the drawing, the architect will favor the following order:

  1. Bold solid line (visible contour, visible edge).
  2. Dotted line (hidden contour, hidden edge).
  3. Thin dotted stroke (limits the cut plane with two bold strokes at both ends).
  4. Thin dotted line (centerline, axis of symmetry).
  5. Solid line (dimension line).

Regulations on recording dimensions while reading drawings

Size Regulations
Size Regulations

In construction design drawings, the size will have 3 components that are alignment lines, size lines and size numbers. Architects, when representing a size on a drawing, need to do it in the order that is: draw the line, draw the following size up to write the size number.

In this size section there are also general standards that are:

  • Dimensions indicated on the drawing are the actual size of the object, independent of the density of the representation.
  • The unit of length measurement is mm, do not write the unit after the size number.
  • The unit of elevation measurement is m, do not write the unit after the size number.
  • The units for measuring angle sizes are degrees, minutes, and seconds and must be written after the size number.

Common symbols in construction drawings

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Door sign: These symbols indicate the types of doors such as single doors, double doors, etc., and how to open the door. These symbols will not be related to the material as well as the structure of the door or the technique of grafting and mounting to the wall.

Door Sign
Door Sign
Interior Drawing Symbol 6
Interior Drawing Symbols

Stair and ramp symbols: These symbols represent both types of stairs and gentle ramps, regardless of construction materials. If the drawing has a scale of 1:100 or greater, the staircase symbol must show in detail both the material as well as the structure according to the calculated ratio of the structure.

Stairs And Slope Symbols
Stairs And Slope Symbols

Baffle symbol: This symbol is represented by a bold solid line and is accompanied by a description of the material. In case if the drawing is 1:50 scale and larger, the partition symbol will need to show the material details as well as the structure according to the calculated ratio of the structure.

Baffle Symbol
Baffle Symbol

How to read a house cross section is simple and easy to understand

Perhaps this is the part you are most looking forward to in this article. You need to know what structures will be in the house and how the structure will be. But do not know how to read, how to understand your future home like. Please follow the following sequence:

  1. You read the drawing of the total floor to see the relationship between the items in the house together. Read in turn, from the first floor, the second floor… and then switch to see the functional parts inside the house: living room, bedroom, toilet, window, …
  2. Read perspective drawings
  3. You read the façade drawing first, then the sectional drawing, and the last one is the structural drawing.
How to read construction drawings
How to read construction drawings

Such a reading process will help you visualize the entire space inside and outside the house will be like, easy to understand and simple.

Sectional drawings of a house are sections obtained using one or more imaginary vertical sections, parallel to the basic projection planes that cross the free space of the house. If the section is arranged along the length, it is called a longitudinal section, if it is arranged horizontally, it is called a cross section.

The position of the cutting plane is marked on the first floor plan by a cut line with the name in capital letters. To read the correct house design drawings, you need to pay attention to the capital letters to know which sectional drawing you are looking at.

How to Read Precise Section Drawings
How to Read Precise Section Drawings

The section shows the space inside the house. It tells us the height of the floors, the openings of windows and doors, the dimensions of the walls, trusses, roofs, foundations, floors, stairs, etc., the position and shape of the horizontal architectural details that decorate the interior of the buildings. room.

The height of the ground floor of the 1st floor is conventionally taken as 0.00. Elevation below this standard is negative. Altitude units are meters and do not need to be followed by the altitude number. Size numbers are on the horizontal shelves.

In addition, to learn how to read construction drawings in sequence in the simplest and most understandable way here.

Some beautiful and modern house cross-section drawings

Section Drawing, Plan of Villa 3 Floors Front 9m
Section Drawing, Plan of Villa 3 Floors Front 9m
Sectional Drawing, Floor Plan of Beautiful Neoclassical 3-storey Villa
Sectional Drawing, Floor Plan of Beautiful Neoclassical 3-storey Villa
Sectional Drawings, Floor Plans of Luxury Villas
Sectional Drawings, Floor Plans of Luxury Villas
Sectional Drawing, Floor Plan of 2-storey Neoclassical Architecture
Floor Plan, Sectional Drawing of a 2-storey Neoclassical Architecture House
Section Drawing, Floor Plan of Thai Roofed House with 2 floors
Floor Plan, Sectional Drawing of Thai Roofed House with 2 floors
Section Drawing, Plan of Thai Roofed House
Floor Plan Drawing, Sectional Section of Thai Roofed House
Sectional Drawing, Beautiful 3-storey Townhouse
Drawing of Facade, Section of Beautiful 3-storey Townhouse
Drawings of Sections, Plans, Facades of Beautiful 2-storey Townhouse
Drawings of Facade, Plan, Section of Beautiful 2-storey Townhouse

Here is information about house cross section but CityA Homes want to share with you. Hope this article is really helpful for you.

If you have any questions or need support, you can contact us directly CityA Homes through the following channels:

  • Hotline: 0905 389 389 VND
  • Email:

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